Grid-Interactive Efficient Buildings CharacteristicsIn states across the nation, the electricity system is changing, presenting challenges and opportunities for the delivery of reliable, clean, and affordable power to America’s homes, businesses, and institutions. As variable renewable generation and distributed energy resources (DERs)—including energy efficiency, demand response, onsite generation, energy storage, and electric vehicles—grow, the management of electricity is becoming more complex.

Fortunately, advancing technologies open the prospect for more flexible management of building and facility energy loads to benefit occupants, owners, and the grid. The purpose of advancing Grid-interactive Efficient Buildings (GEBs) is to optimize energy management by utilizing sensors, analytics, and smart controls to best serve the needs of occupants while considering the grid and external conditions (such as peak loads and weather). Greater optimization of the significant energy demand and supply functions that buildings offer – on an automated basis – has far reaching electricity policy and regulatory implications for State Energy Offices, Public Utility Commissions, utilities, and building owners and investors. Flexible load management can:

  • Lower costs, enhance resilience, and reduce emissions
  • Reduce peak loads, moderate the ramping of demand, and provide grid services
  • Enhance energy efficiency and integrate distributed and renewable energy resources.

The fundamental question that arise from this opportunity are:

  • How can we optimize facility interactions with the grid?
  • How can states fashion policies, programs, and regulations to advance such optimization through GEBs?
  • What are the roles for states, facility owners and operators, utilities, product and service providers, and others?

To help states approach these questions, the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) and the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) established the NASEO-NARUC Grid-interactive Efficient Building Working Group, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Office and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).

Through the GEB Working Group, State Energy Officials and state utility regulators can explore GEB technologies and applications; identify opportunities and impediments (technical and non-technical); identify and express state priorities and interests; inform policy, planning, programs and regulation; consider unregulated electric sector investments and implications; and advance GEB road map and pilot options.

GEB Working Group activities include state interviews, webinars, and exchanges. Private sector and non-governmental organizations are also being engaged. A state GEB briefing paper and other resources have been and are being developed developed. The resources page also includes links to other NASEO, NARUC, and external papers, presentations, webinars, and other items. NASEO and NARUC are partnered with DOE and the National Laboratories to provide demand flexibility/GEB-related technical assistance (TA) to Working Group states;  2020-2021 TA focus areas include: state and public buildings, pilot projects, state and regional GEB potential, and valuation of GEB grid services.

National GEB Roadmap: U.S. DOE, A National Roadmap for Grid-interactive Efficient Buildings (May 2021)

U.S. DOE, Connected Communities (overview presentation)


  • Upcoming forums are limited to state Working Group member. Details pending. Please contact with questions.

    • July 13, 2022, 3:00-4:30 PM ET: Including demand flexibility and electrification in energy efficiency programs
    • September 14, 2022, 3:00-4:30 PM ET: Grid/distribution planning, including non-wires solutions
  • NARUC, Financial Toolbox on Electrification, will address technology, economic, accounting, and customer considerations related to building electrification programs, including status and trends, cost-benefit considerations, and regulatory questions. Webinar May 26, 2022, 1:00 - 2:30 pm; register at


  • NASEO-NARUC GEB Working Group Forum on Including Demand Flexibility and Electrification in Building Codes and Building Performance Standards, May 11, 2022 - Presentation based on the State and Local Building Policies and Programs for Energy Efficiency and Demand Flexibility report followed by Chris Perry, Engineer, DOE Building Technologies Office, and Ellen Franconi, Senior Energy Research Engineer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on potential DF/DR-friendly provision inclusion in codes, stretch codes, and BPS, and on including time-differentiation in code cost-effectiveness determinations. Slide deck.
  • Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) Demand Response Emerging Technology (DRET) Battery Study investigates the ability to utilize residential PV systems paired with Tesla Powerwall batteries to support electric grid reliability in times of high electricity demand by creating a virtual power plants (VPP). (April 2022)
  • LBNL The Role of Innovation in the Electric Utility Sector  provides consumer, labor, utility, third-party provider, and clean technology consultant perspectives on innovation in the context of state regulation of utilities. Report and slides at
  • Holland, C. and J. Homer (PNNL), Pilot Considerations for Grid-interactive Efficient Buildings in Hawaii (March 2022) - Prepared as part of technical assistance to the GEB Working Group, this brief supports the research, design, and creation of GEB pilots; provides state policymakers, regulatory staff, utilities, and others with information to support GEB pilot design, including a summary of the potential value of GEBs, technology requirements and communication protocols, and cost-effectiveness considerations.
  • LBNL Time-Sensitive Value Calculator. The Calculator is a publicly available, free, Excel-based tool by Berkeley Lab that estimates the value of energy efficiency and other distributed energy resource (DER) measures using hourly estimates of electricity system costs. Site includes links to the user's manual and April 13, 2022 webinar presentation.
  • Resources for the Future, Greening the Grid through Demand-Side Automation, April 4, 2022, 3:00 PM ET (recording available).
  • NASEO-NARUC GEB Working Group Forum on Rate Design to Support Demand Flexibility, March 9, 2022 - State exchange and presentations by Sanem Sergici (Principal, The Brattle Group) [Retail Pricing: A Low Cost Approach to Load Flexibility] and Lon Huber (VP, Rate Design and Strategic Solutions, Duke Energy) [New Realities: A Case for Innovative Customer Centric Rate Designs]. 
  • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Distribution System Operator with Transactive (DSO+T) study investigates the engineering and economic performance of a transactive energy retail market coordinating a high penetration of customer-side flexible energy assets. Includes summary, main report, and related volumes (simulation, coordination framework, simulation, valuation and metrics, Austin SHINES case). A recording of the March 17, 2022 webinar is also at the project website.
  • Working Group Members – 27 States


    Twenty seven states through their State Energy Offices and/or Public Utility Commissions are members of the Working Group.

    The GEB Working Group state co-chairs are:

    • Gail Suzuki-Jones, Energy Analyst, Hawaii State Energy Office (NASEO member)
    • Hanna Terwilliger, Economic Analyst, Minnesota Public Utility Commission (NARUC member)

    Working Group States:

    • Arkansas
    • Arizona
    • California
    • Colorado
    • Connecticut
    • Florida
    • Georgia
    • Hawaii
    • Idaho
    • Illinois
    • Maryland
    • Massachusetts
    • Michigan
    • Minnesota
    • Mississippi
    • Nebraska
    • New Jersey
    • New York
    • Oregon
    • Pennsylvania
    • South Carolina
    • Tennessee
    • Utah
    • Virginia
    • Washington
    • Wisconsin
    • Wyoming


    NASEO contacts: Rodney Sobin and Ed Carley or

    NARUC contact: Danielle Sass Byrnett 

  • Resources and More Information

    • GEB resources, including past webinars
    • NASEO-NARUC GEB State Interviews
    • GEB Working Group Technical Assistance (participation limited to Working Group states, contact or Rodney Sobin or Ed Carley for information):